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引用本文:谢平,陈隽,刘佳睿.非经典生物操纵驱动从水华向非水华的稳态转化——来自武汉东湖的全湖验证实验.湖泊科学,2023,35(1):1-11. DOI:10.18307/2023.0199
Xie Ping,Chen Jun,Liu Jiarui.A regime shift from cyanobacterial steady state to non-cyanobacterial one by using non-traditional biomanipulation—A whole lake testing experiment in Lake Donghu, Wuhan. J. Lake Sci.2023,35(1):1-11. DOI:10.18307/2023.0199
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非经典生物操纵驱动从水华向非水华的稳态转化——来自武汉东湖的全湖验证实验
谢平1,2, 陈隽1, 刘佳睿1
1.中国科学院水生生物研究所东湖湖泊生态系统试验站, 武汉 430072;2.云南大学生态与环境学院高原湖泊生态与治理研究院, 昆明 650500
摘要:
对藻类水华的生态控制区分为欧美学者提出的经典生物操纵和我国学者提出的非经典生物操纵,前者依赖浮游动物,可用来控制小型藻类,后者依赖滤食性鱼类,可用来控制形成群体的蓝藻(特别是微囊藻)。武汉东湖是一个富营养化城市湖泊,30余年未发生水华,2021年突然暴发微囊藻水华,一度覆盖湖面近87%。东湖生态站通过对长期监测数据的分析发现,东湖目前的营养水平仍然适合蓝藻的暴发,而短期内又无法进一步有效削减营养盐负荷,因此,基于非经典生物操纵的理论(合理配置本土的滤食性鲢、鳙),实施了定量化的生物控藻方案,结果控藻成效显著,在极端高温干旱的2022年并未发生蓝藻水华,即将东湖生态系统从水华(浊水)稳态迅速切换到了非水华稳态,完成了一种新的稳态转换,获得了经典生物操纵从未有过的成功。非经典生物操纵理论的有效性通过全湖实验得到了验证,证明它提供了一种对环境友好、成本极低且颇为有效的控制富营养湖泊中形成群体蓝藻水华的方法,具有广阔的应用前景。
关键词:  武汉东湖  蓝藻水华  非经典生物操纵理论  全湖实验验证  水华(浊水)稳态  非水华稳态  稳态转化
DOI:10.18307/2023.0199
分类号:
基金项目:中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(B类)(XDB31000000)和国家自然科学基金项目(91951110)联合资助。
A regime shift from cyanobacterial steady state to non-cyanobacterial one by using non-traditional biomanipulation—A whole lake testing experiment in Lake Donghu, Wuhan
Xie Ping1,2, Chen Jun1, Liu Jiarui1
1.Donghu Experimental Station of Lake Ecosystems, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Science, Wuhan 430072, P. R. China;2.Institute for Ecological Research and Pollution Control of Plateau Lakes, School of Ecology and Environment Science, Yunnan University, Kunming 650500, P. R. China
Abstract:
Biological controls of phytoplankton are divided into traditional biomanipulation using zooplankton and nontraditional biomanipulation using filter-feeding fishes, and the former theory developed by western scholars are suitable for controlling small algae, while the latter one developed by Chinese scholars are effective for controlling colony-forming cyanobacteria (especially Microcystis). Lake Donghu is a eutrophic lake, located in Wuhan City, China, with a surface area of ca. 32 km2. Before 2021, cyanobacterial blooms had been absent from the main part of the lake (Guozhenghu area, 12.8 km2) for more than 30 years. However, in the summer of 2021, Microcystis blooms suddenly occurred in the lake, with a maximum coverage of approximately 87%. After examining the long-term monitoring data of the Donghu Experimental Station of Lake Ecosystems, we found that current nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) levels are still high enough for the outburst of cyanobacterial blooms in this lake. As it is impossible to efficiently decrease the nutrients within a short period of time (e.g. a couple of years), non-traditional biomanipulation (using the native filter-feeding silver and bighead carps with an appropriate abundance) was applied to counteract the occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms, and as a result, no blooms were present in 2022 in spite of an extremely hot and dry summer, i.e., the Lake Donghu ecosystems was shifted quickly from a bloom steady state to a non-bloom one, demonstrating a new regime shift, and achieving a success that the traditional biomanipulation had never had before. Conclusively, the non-traditional biomanipulation theory was tested and validated using a whole lake experiment, providing an environmentally friendly, extremely low-cost and rather effective way to control colony-forming cyanobacterial blooms in eutrophic lakes.
Key words:  Lake Donghu  cyanobacterial blooms  non-traditional biomanipulation theory  validation by whole lake experiment  bloom (turbid) steady state  non-bloom steady state  regime shift
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