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引用本文:王晨溪,夏少霞,余定坤,于秀波,龚磊强.鄱阳湖越冬雁类时空分布特征及热点区域识别.湖泊科学,2024,36(3):836-845. DOI:10.18307/2024.0331
Wang Chenxi,Xia Shaoxia,Yu Dingkun,Yu Xiubo,Gong Leiqiang.Temporal and spatial distribution characteristics and hotspot area identification of wintering geese in Lake Poyang. J. Lake Sci.2024,36(3):836-845. DOI:10.18307/2024.0331
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鄱阳湖越冬雁类时空分布特征及热点区域识别
王晨溪1,2, 夏少霞1,2, 余定坤3, 于秀波1,2, 龚磊强3
1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,生态系统网络观测与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101;2.中国科学院大学,北京 100049;3.江西省鄱阳湖国家级自然保护区管理局,南昌 330038
摘要:
鄱阳湖是东亚-澳大利西亚迁徙路线上重要的水鸟越冬栖息地,雁类是迁徙路线上的优势种群。然而,近年来迁徙路线上的雁类种群数量有所下降,识别越冬地雁类时空分布特征,确定分布热点区域是科学、精准保护的前提。本研究利用2018—2021年越冬期在鄱阳湖区域开展的共58次水鸟调查数据,提取了基于时间序列的白额雁(Anser albifrons)、豆雁(Anser fabalis)、鸿雁(Anser cygnoid)的分布数据,分析了3种雁类在越冬地的种群动态、时间和空间分布动态,评估了鄱阳湖各子湖的重要性,确定了雁类分布热点区域。研究结果表明,3种雁类在越冬地的种群数量表现出一定的年际波动,雁类种群总数量维持在27.9万~44.8万只;不同雁类迁徙的时间节律存在差异,本次地面调查数据显示白额雁、豆雁、鸿雁分别是在10月初至11月初、11月中旬、12月中旬到达鄱阳湖,其中鸿雁到达最晚;高峰期集中在11月底至次年2月初,持续时间约为100天;3种雁类分别在2月中旬、2月底和3月中旬开始迁离鄱阳湖。3种雁类空间分布范围有所差异,豆雁分布范围最广,白额雁分布相对集中,高峰期雁类的分布范围最大,对子湖的利用强度也最大。从空间分布特征来看,大湖池和大汊湖重要性最高,鄱阳湖保护区是雁类利用强度最高的区域,其次是都昌保护区。此外,雁类,特别是鸿雁,对保护区以外的子湖利用强度也较高。本研究对精准刻画鄱阳湖越冬雁类时空分布范围、针对性地开展栖息地保护和修复、加强子湖保护和管理具有重要意义。
关键词:  鄱阳湖  越冬雁类  时空分布  重要性评估  热点区域
DOI:10.18307/2024.0331
分类号:
基金项目:中国科学院网信专项(CAS-WX2021SF-0501)、国家自然科学基金项目(42171105)和中国科学院战略性先导科技专项A类(XDA23040203)联合资助。
Temporal and spatial distribution characteristics and hotspot area identification of wintering geese in Lake Poyang
Wang Chenxi1,2, Xia Shaoxia1,2, Yu Dingkun3, Yu Xiubo1,2, Gong Leiqiang3
1.Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, P. R. China;2.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, P. R. China;3.Jiangxi Poyang Lake National Nature Reserve Authority, Nanchang 330038, P.R. China
Abstract:
Lake Poyang is an important wintering habitat for waterbirds on the East Asian-Australasian Flyway, and geese are the dominance species along the flyway. While their populations along the flyway have declined and it is urgent to clarifying their spatial and temporal distribution pattern and hotspots, which is the precondition and foundation for scientific and effective conservation. A total of 58 surveys were conducted in the sub-lakes of Lake Poyang from 2018 to 2021. Based on the ground survey data of geese, this study analyzed the temporal and spatial distribution dynamics of wintering geese, evaluated the importance of sub-lakes in Lake Poyang, and proposed the hotspot areas of geese. The results showed that the population of the three species of geese in the wintering ground fluctuated annually, and the total counts of geese remains at 279000-448000. There were differences in the migration time rhythms of different species of geese. The results showed that greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons), bean geese (Anser fabalis) and swan geese (Anser cygnoid) arrived at Lake Poyang from early October to November 8th, November 18th, and December 8th, respectively, with swan geese arriving the latest. The peak period was from the end of November to the beginning of February, and lasts for 100 days. The three species of geese began to leave Poyang Lake on February 18th, February 28th and March 18th, respectively. The spatial distribution of geese differed, with Bean geese having the widest distribution and greater white-fronted geese having the narrowest. During the wintering period, all three geese had the widest distribution in the peak period, and the highest utilization intensity of sub-lakes. In terms of spatial distribution pattern, Lake Dahuchi and Lake Dacha were most important for geese. Lake Poyang Nature Reserve was the most important hotspot area for geese, followed by Duchang Nature Reserve, while sub-lakes outside nature reserves were also important, especially for Swan geese. This study is important to accurately delineate the spatial and temporal distribution of wintering geese, carry out habitat protection and restoration, and strengthen the protection and management of the sub-lakes.
Key words:  Lake Poyang  wintering geese  spatial and temporal distribution  importance analysis  hotspot area
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