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引用本文:王晓春,闫金波,吕超楠,王伟杰,林涛涛,韩松俊.三峡水库水面蒸发年内滞后效应分析.湖泊科学,2024,36(3):890-900. DOI:10.18307/2024.0341
Wang Xiaochun,Yan Jinbo,Lv Chaonan,Wang Weijie,Lin Taotao,Han Songjun.Analysis of the intra-annual hysteresis effect of water surface evaporation in the Three Gorges Reservoir. J. Lake Sci.2024,36(3):890-900. DOI:10.18307/2024.0341
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三峡水库水面蒸发年内滞后效应分析
王晓春1, 闫金波2, 吕超楠3, 王伟杰1, 林涛涛2, 韩松俊1
1.中国水利水电科学研究院,流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室,北京 100038;2.长江水利委员会水文局长江三峡水文水资源勘测局,宜昌 443000;3.中国长江三峡集团有限公司,宜昌 443100
摘要:
水面蒸发在季节变化上相比净辐射等气象要素的相位延迟反映了水体储热对水面蒸发的影响,量化这一对气象要素波动的滞后响应对理解和估算深水水库(湖泊)蒸发非常重要。三峡水库等河道型深水水库的水位和面积具有显著周期性变动,使得其水面蒸发的响应模式更为复杂,而目前对其认识非常薄弱。本文利用2013年8月-2020年7月三峡水库巴东站水面蒸发场和陆面蒸发场的蒸发和气象观测数据,分析了水面蒸发的季节变化及其年内滞后效应。结果表明:水面蒸发场蒸发量在年内的8和12月呈现双峰变化,与只有8月单峰值的陆面蒸发场蒸发量显著不同。水面蒸发场蒸发量相对净辐射、平均气温和水面温度分别存在4、3和2个月的滞后,而陆面蒸发场蒸发量相对滞后时间均在1个月以内;水面与陆面蒸发场相比,水温、蒸发量和水面与大气饱和差之间的滞后时间分别为1、3和4个月,而平均气温和净辐射之间不存在滞后。本文揭示出三峡水库巴东段水面蒸发年内滞后效应主要受到水库水温引起的水面与大气饱和差在季节上滞后的影响,需通过深入分析水温的时空变化来明确整个三峡水库的水面蒸发特征。
关键词:  水面蒸发  滞后效应  水体储热  三峡水库  水温变化
DOI:10.18307/2024.0341
分类号:
基金项目:中国长江三峡集团有限公司科研项目(0704210)和国家自然科学基金项目(52079147,52130906)联合资助。
Analysis of the intra-annual hysteresis effect of water surface evaporation in the Three Gorges Reservoir
Wang Xiaochun1, Yan Jinbo2, Lv Chaonan3, Wang Weijie1, Lin Taotao2, Han Songjun1
1.State Key Laboratory of Simulation and Regulation of Water Cycle in River Basin, China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing 100038, P. R. China;2.The Three Gorges Hydrologic and Water Resources Survey Bureau, Bureau of Hydrology, Changjiang Water Resources Commission, Yichang 443000, P. R. China;3.China Three Gorges Corporation, Yichang 443100, P. R. China
Abstract:
The phase delay of water surface evaporation compared to meteorological factors such as net radiation in seasonal changes reflects the impact of water heat storage on water surface evaporation. Quantifying the hysteresis response of this fluctuation to meteorological factors is crucial for understanding and estimating evaporation in deep reservoirs (lakes). The water level and area of river type deep-water reservoirs such as the Three Gorges Reservoir have significant periodic changes. However, the understanding of the intra-annual hysteresis effect of water surface evaporation is still limited. In this paper, the seasonal variation of water surface evaporation and its intra-annual hysteresis effect were analyzed by using the evaporation and meteorological observation data of the water surface evaporation site and the land surface evaporation site in Badong Station of the Three Gorges Reservoir from August 2013 to July 2020. The results show that the evaporation rate of the water surface evaporation site shows a bimodal pattern in December and August within a year, which is significantly different from the unimodal pattern in August for the land surface evaporation site. The hysteresis time of water surface evaporation relative to net radiation, average temperature and water surface temperature was 4, 3 and 2 months, respectively, while the relative hysteresis time of land surface evaporation was less than 1 month. Compared with the land surface evaporation site, the hysteresis time between water temperature, evaporation and water surface and atmospheric saturation difference was 1, 3 and 4 months, respectively, while there was no hysteresis between average temperature and net radiation. This paper revealed that the intra-annual hysteresis effect of water surface evaporation in the Badong Station of the Three Gorges Reservoir was mainly affected by the seasonal hysteresis of the saturation difference between the water surface and the atmosphere caused by the water temperature of the reservoir. It is necessary to clarify the water surface evaporation characteristics of the entire Three Gorges Reservoir by in-depth analysis of the temporal and spatial changes of water temperature under reservoir operation.
Key words:  Water surface evaporation  hysteresis effect  heat storage in water body  Three Gorges Reservoir  water temperature change
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