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引用本文:石小涛,朱梦娜,王克雄,郝玉江,李冬晴,陈伟,王楠楠,季怀耀,庞凯文,俞晓伟,柯森繁.葛洲坝至胭脂坝长江干流段江豚活动规律.湖泊科学,2024,36(4):1163-1172. DOI:10.18307/2024.0441
Shi Xiaotao,Zhu Mengna,Wang Kexiong,Hao Yujiang,Li Dongqing,Chen Wei,Wang Nannan,Ji Huaiyao,Pang Kaiwen,Yu Xiaowei,Ke Senfan.The activity rules of Yangtze finless porpoise(Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis) in the main stream of the Yangtze River from Gezhouba Dam to Yanzhiba. J. Lake Sci.2024,36(4):1163-1172. DOI:10.18307/2024.0441
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葛洲坝至胭脂坝长江干流段江豚活动规律
石小涛1,2, 朱梦娜2,3, 王克雄4, 郝玉江4, 李冬晴1,2, 陈伟1,2, 王楠楠2,3, 季怀耀1,2, 庞凯文1,2, 俞晓伟1,2, 柯森繁1,2
1.三峡大学水利与环境学院, 宜昌 443002;2.三峡大学湖北省鱼类过坝技术国际科技合作基地, 宜昌 443002;3.三峡大学生物与制药学院, 宜昌 443002;4.中国科学院水生生物研究所, 中国科学院水生生物多样性与保护重点实验室, 武汉 430072
摘要:
长江江豚是我国一级保护野生动物,也是长江生态系统的指示性物种,其种群数量恢复情况及活动规律一直备受关注。本文选择长江宜昌段江豚活动频繁的葛洲坝下游至胭脂坝江段为研究区域,于2021年6月-2022年5月采用定点目测、水上流动监测与无人机监测相结合的方法分区监测长江江豚的游泳行为,分析长江江豚的活动规律,构建了长江江豚出水头次的零膨胀泊松回归模型,识别影响长江江豚出水头次的关键因素,建立长江江豚出水头次与各因素间的相关关系。结果表明:(1)葛洲坝至胭脂坝长江干流段监测到最大江豚出水头次为19头次,长江江豚集群规模以2~3头最为常见,占比达58.1%;长江江豚主要表现出4种行为特征,各行为占比从大到小依次为:玩耍>休息>摄食>抚幼。(2)长江江豚在葛洲坝下游近坝区(A区,葛洲坝至至喜长江大桥)出水头次最多,且在秋冬季节累计出水头次多于春夏季节,冬季累计出水头次最高,达252头次。(3)长江江豚出水头次与电站下泄流量呈显著负相关;浊度增大,长江江豚出水的概率减小。本文研究结果对长江江豚生态保护策略及长江十年禁渔效果评估具有重要参考价值。
关键词:  长江江豚  活动规律  电站下泄流量  葛洲坝
DOI:10.18307/2024.0441
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(52279069)、湖北省自然科学基金计划(创新群体项目)(2023AFA005)和三峡库区生态环境教育部工程研究中心开放基金项目(KF2022-10)联合资助。
The activity rules of Yangtze finless porpoise(Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis) in the main stream of the Yangtze River from Gezhouba Dam to Yanzhiba
Shi Xiaotao1,2, Zhu Mengna2,3, Wang Kexiong4, Hao Yujiang4, Li Dongqing1,2, Chen Wei1,2, Wang Nannan2,3, Ji Huaiyao1,2, Pang Kaiwen1,2, Yu Xiaowei1,2, Ke Senfan1,2
1.College of Hydraulic and Environment Engineering, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002, P. R. China;2.Hubei International Science and Technology Cooperation Base of Fish Passage, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002, P. R. China;3.College of Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002, P. R. China;4.Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072, P. R. China
Abstract:
The Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis) is a first-class protected wild animal in China, and an indicative species of the Yangtze River ecosystem. Its population recovery and activity rules of Yangtze finless porpoises have received much attention. In this study, the section from Gezhouba Dam to Yanzhiba of the Yangtze River with high frequency of the Yangtze finless porpoises' activities was selected as the study area. From June 2021 to May 2022, the movement of the Yangtze finless porpoise was monitored using the methods of fixed-point visual inspection, water flow and UAV monitoring. A Zero-inflated model Poisson regression model was developed to quantify the times of Yangtze finless porpoises exposed to the river surface. The environmental factors affecting the times of Yangtze finless porpoise exposed to the river surface were identified. Our investigation results indicated that: (1) The maximum times of Yangtze finless porpoises detected in the section from Gezhouba Dam to Yanzhiba was 19, with 2-3 of them being the most common in the Yangtze finless porpoise cluster size, accounting for 58.1%. The Yangtze finless porpoise had four major behavioral characteristics with an descending order of playing>resting>feeding>baby caring. (2) The Yangtze finless porpoise had the highest number of times in the downstream area of Gezhouba Dam (i.e., from Gezhouba Dam to Zhixi Yangtze Bridge), and had more individuals in autumn and winter than that in spring and summer. The cumulative number of individuals was highest (252) in winter. (3) The individuals of Yangtze finless porpoise had a significant negative correlation with the discharge of the power plant. With the increase of turbidity, the probability of Yangtze finless porpoise exposing to the river surface decreased. This study provided scientific support to design ecological protection strategies for the Yangtze finless porpoise, and to evaluate the ten-year fishing ban in the Yangtze River.
Key words:  Yangtze finless porpoise  activity rules  discharge of the power plant  Gezhouba Dam
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