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引用本文:李永民,董锴,李东伟,王魏根,胡文峰.淮北平原中小型湖泊鸟类多维度多样性.湖泊科学,2024,36(4):1183-1191. DOI:10.18307/2024.0443
Li Yongmin,Dong Kai,Li Dongwei,Wang Weigen,Hu Wenfeng.Multidimensional diversity of birds in small and medium-sized lakes in Huaibei Plain. J. Lake Sci.2024,36(4):1183-1191. DOI:10.18307/2024.0443
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淮北平原中小型湖泊鸟类多维度多样性
李永民1, 董锴1, 李东伟1, 王魏根1, 胡文峰2
1.阜阳师范大学生物与食品工程学院, 阜阳 236037;2.阜阳师范大学历史文化与旅游学院, 阜阳 236037
摘要:
湿地介于陆地和水生生态系统之间,具有丰富的生态价值,湿地公园在维持生态平衡,提高鸟类多样性等方面具有重要作用。2022年3月-2023年2月,采用样点法和样线法对淮北平原地区颍州西湖国家湿地公园进行鸟类调查,通过对鸟类群落的物种多样性、分类学多样性、功能多样性和系统发育多样性4个维度多样性指数以及鸟类生态类群的分析探究湿地公园鸟类群落的时空分布格局。本轮调查共记录鸟类153种共26107只次,其中国家Ⅰ级重点保护野生动物1种,国家Ⅱ级重点保护野生动物16种;IUCN红色名录极危物种1种,易危物种2种。结果表明:春季功能丰富度、物种丰富度和香农-威纳指数在湖泊、防护林和绿化带3种生境之间差异显著,夏季湖泊生境中物种丰富度(24.67±0.94)和系统发育多样性(985.14±52.57)显著高于绿化带和防护林,秋季功能丰富度(8.24±0.90)和系统发育多样性(935.34±37.12)在湖泊中均最高,冬季湖泊香农-威纳指数(2.31±0.03)、功能丰富度(3.73±0.77)显著高于绿化带和防护林2种生境;绿化带生境中,多个多样性指数在春季最高,在冬季均达到最低水平,湖泊生境冬季的物种丰富度(25.00±0.82)、香农-威纳指数和辛普森指数(0.84±0.01)在冬季最高,夏季系统发育多样性最高;防护林生境中物种丰富度(22.67±2.87)在秋季显著高于其他3个季节。单次调查中发现并记录青头潜鸭(Aythya baeri)15只,超过东亚-澳大利西亚候鸟迁徙路线该物种种群数量的1%,达到国际重要湿地标准。结果显示秋季为该湿地公园鸟类多样性保护的重点季节,湖泊生境为该湿地公园的重点保护区域,颍州西湖国家湿地公园对迁徙及越冬水鸟具有重要生态价值,应进一步加强鸟类监测,提升其生态功能。
关键词:  淮北平原  中小型湖泊  鸟类  多维度  多样性  时空格局
DOI:10.18307/2024.0443
分类号:
基金项目:安徽省教育厅自然科学研究重点项目(KJ2021A0669,KJ2021A0670)、中国博士后科学基金项目(2019M653905XB)和大学生创新创业训练计划项目(202310371005,S202310371095)联合资助。
Multidimensional diversity of birds in small and medium-sized lakes in Huaibei Plain
Li Yongmin1, Dong Kai1, Li Dongwei1, Wang Weigen1, Hu Wenfeng2
1.College of Biological and Food Engineering, Fuyang Normal University, Fuyang 236037, P. R. China;2.College of History, Culture and Tourism, Fuyang Normal University, Fuyang 236037, P. R. China
Abstract:
Located at the intersection of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, wetland offers invaluable ecological significance. Yingzhou West Lake National Wetland Park is located in the Huaibei Plain, and is a critical place for preserving ecological stability and augmenting avian diversity. This study employed point-count and transect methodologies to examine the bird population within the park from March 2022 to February 2023. Four diversity indices (i.e., species, taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic diversities) and bird ecological guilds were applied to investigate the spatio-temporal pattern of avian for the park. Throughout this period, the park hosted 153 distinct bird species, with a total of 26107 individuals. One species was designated under the National Key Protected Wildlife (Category Ⅰ) and 16 under Category Ⅱ. IUCN Red List additionally identified one critically endangered and two vulnerable species. Diversity metric varied significantly across seasons and habitats. During spring, there were distinct differences in functional richness, species richness, and Shannon-Wiener index among the three habitats: lakes, protective forests, and green belts. Summer exhibited higher species richness (24.67±0.94) and phylogenetic diversity (985.14±52.57) in lakes compared to the other habitats. Autumn exhibited peak values of functional richness (8.24±0.90) and phylogenetic diversity (935.34±37.12) in lakes, while winter revealed an excellent Shannon-Wiener index (2.31±0.03) and functional richness (3.73±0.77) in lakes over green belts and protective forests. Results also indicated that the spring's green belt habitats had peak diversity which dipped by winter. Lake habitats had their highest species richness (25.00±0.82), Shannon-Wiener, and Simpson indices (0.84±0.01) in winter, but reached a zenith in phylogenetic diversity during summer. The protective forest habitats saw the autumn season flourish with species richness (22.67±2.87) surpassing other seasons. A salient finding was the recording of 15 individuals of Baer's Pochardi (Aythya baeri), which accounts for over 1% of its global population on East Asian-Australasian Flyway, highlighting the park's international significance. Collectively, the results showed the importance of autumn season and lake habitats as hot moments and spots for bird diversity conservation in the park. The results advocated for sustained monitoring and further enhancement of the park's ecological functions, given its value for both migratory and overwintering waterbirds.
Key words:  Huaibei Plain  small and medium-sized lakes  avian  multidimensional  diversity  spatio-temporal dynamics
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