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引用本文:陈柯兵,高玉磊,朱玲玲,由星莹,樊咏阳,邓乐乐.汉江兴隆水利枢纽下游近坝河段枯水位下降及成因分析.湖泊科学,2024,36(4):1220-1231. DOI:10.18307/2024.0452
Chen Kebing,Gao Yulei,Zhu Lingling,You Xingying,Fan Yongyang,Deng Lele.Analysis of the low water level decline and its causes in the downstream section of Hanjiang River Xinglong Water Control Project near the dam. J. Lake Sci.2024,36(4):1220-1231. DOI:10.18307/2024.0452
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汉江兴隆水利枢纽下游近坝河段枯水位下降及成因分析
陈柯兵1, 高玉磊2, 朱玲玲1, 由星莹3, 樊咏阳4, 邓乐乐5
1.长江水利委员会水文局, 武汉 430010;2.中国长江三峡集团有限公司流域枢纽运行管理中心, 宜昌 443133;3.湖北省汉江兴隆水利枢纽管理局, 武汉 430062;4.长江勘测规划设计研究有限责任公司, 武汉 430014;5.武汉大学水资源工程与调度全国重点实验室, 武汉 430072
摘要:
汉江兴隆水利枢纽运行后,坝下游近坝段枯水位较建坝前下降明显,500~800 m3/s流量下,2021年较运行前坝下水位累计下降2.47~2.55 m,对工程安全及效益发挥带来不利影响。基于水文、断面、水下地形等观测资料,对枯水位下降的原因进行深入剖析。结果表明,兴隆水利枢纽的拦沙作用有限,皇庄以上沙量减少是兴隆以下河床冲刷加剧的重要原因,高水调平导致的年内枯水上滩几率下降和航道整治护滩工程是强冲刷过程中“滩淤槽冲”的核心因素。坝下游河段枯水河槽冲刷及汉口最低水位下降是造成兴隆近坝段枯水位下降的直接原因。随机森林算法分析显示,对兴隆坝下水位变化影响最大的因素为兴隆站输沙率的锐减。此外,航道整治工程、河床边界条件对枯水位下降也有十分重要的驱动作用。兴隆坝址及下游河段的河床组成偏细,2012-2022年虽然河床剧烈冲刷,但床沙组成没有出现粗化的现象,预计河床仍将继续冲刷下切,枯水位尚未达到稳定状态。
关键词:  汉江  兴隆水利枢纽  河床冲刷  枯水位下降  随机森林
DOI:10.18307/2024.0452
分类号:
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2023YFC3209502)、湖北省水利重点科研项目(HBSLKY202327)和国家自然科学基金长江水科学研究联合基金项目(U2240206)联合资助。
Analysis of the low water level decline and its causes in the downstream section of Hanjiang River Xinglong Water Control Project near the dam
Chen Kebing1, Gao Yulei2, Zhu Lingling1, You Xingying3, Fan Yongyang4, Deng Lele5
1.Bureau of Hydrology, Changjiang Water Resources Commission, Wuhan 430010, P. R. China;2.River Basin Hub Operation Management Center of China Three Gorges Group Co., Ltd., Yichang 443133, P. R. China;3.Hubei Hanjiang Xinglong Hydro-junction Administration, Wuhan 430062, P. R. China;4.Changjiang Institute of Survey, Planning Design and Research Co., Ltd., Wuhan 430014, P. R. China;5.State Key Laboratory of Water Resources Engineering and Management, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, P. R. China
Abstract:
After the operation of the Xinglong Water Control Project at Hanjiang River, the low water level near the downstream of the dam has significantly decreased compared to that before the construction of the dam. Under a flow rate of 500-800 m3/s, the cumulative water level under the dam has decreased by 2.47-2.55 m in 2021 compared to that before the operation. Such water level decrease had adverse effects on the safety and efficiency of the Hydro-junction. Based on the observation data of hydrology, cross section and underwater topography, the causes of low water level decline were analyzed. The results showed a limited sediment retention of the Xinglong Water Control Project. Reduction of sediment flux throug Huangzhuang was an important factor enhancing riverbed erosion below Xinglong. The decrease in the probability of dry water reaching the beach during the year caused by high water level regulation, the channel regulation and protection engineering were critical factors of "beach sedimentation and channel erosion" in the process of strong erosion. The direct reasons for the decrease of dry water level in the Xinglong near dam section were the erosion of the low water channel downstream of the dam and the decrease in the lowest water level in Hankou. The random forest algorithm analysis showed that the most critical factor affecting the changes in water level under Xinglong Dam was the sharp decrease of sediment flux at Xinglong Station. In addition, the waterway regulation project and the boundary conditions of the riverbed also played a critical role in the decrease of low water level. The riverbed composition at the Xinglong Dam site and downstream reaches was relatively fine. Although the riverbed was severely eroded from 2012 to 2022, there was no coarsening of the sediment composition. Therefore, it was expected that the riverbed will continue to be eroded and cut down. The low water level has not yet reached a stable state.
Key words:  Hanjiang River  Xinglong Water Control Project  river bed erosion  lowering of low water level  random forest
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